American Philosophers List

The american philosophy is leading on many branches of the contemporary philosophy : analytic philosophy, philosophy of mind and political philosophy (Rawls, Nozick, Sandel, …)

Find out a list of American philosophers and papers and research on their philosophical ideas (Rawls, Nozick, Peirce, Putnam…)

Stream of Consciousness in James

The stream of consciousness is a phrase coined by the psychologist William James as a characterization of the mind, that is,  that it is a process of continuous thought. It can be seen as an attempt to find a middle way between two opposing concepts of the mind : – the cartesian (that mind is a special and unknown kinf of mental substance) – the humean (that it is nothing but a bundle of sensations James wrote : “The traditional psychology talks like one who should say a river consists of nothing but paitsful, spoonsful, quart-potsful, bowlsful, andf other moulded forms of water. Even were the pails and pots all actually standing in the stream, still continue to flow. It it just this free water of consciousness that psycologists resolutely overlook”

Equality of What by Amartya Sen (Summary)

Sen vs Rawls The work of the economist Amartya Sen, sanctioned in 1998 by Nobel laureate, held in the global intellectual landscape, a place certainly atypical. By advocating an ethical dimension to economics, refuting the assumptions, such as the rationality of economic agents, neoclassical, focusing on themes previously set aside by the economy, such as famine, or still integrating the discussion of …

Ryle: The concept of mind (Summary)

Summary of the work: The Concept of Mind by Ryle The concept of Mind, by Gilbert Ryle, is one of the most important philosophy book of the 20th century. Ryle revolutionnises our conception of the human conscience, etablished since Descartes, Kant and Husserl. Ryle’s project consists in a sustained and punishing bombardment of the cartesian conception of man, characteristically labelled “the dogma of the ghost in the machine“. …

Nozick & Distributive Justice

Nozick: Anarchy, State and Utopia as a critique of the Rawls distributive justice theory: Here is a paper on the major work of political philosophy of Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia. This book presents itself as a libertarian critique of the Theory of Justice by John Rawls. For Nozick, distributive justice is incompatible with the rights of individuals. In the first part of the book, Nozick attempts to demonstrate against the supporters of the welfare state,…

Communitarianism, minorities and democracy: Spheres of Justice by Michael Walzer (Summary)

Walzer, Republic and Minorities With each election comes the issue of the integration of minorities. Conservative parties favor the unity of the nation, while the progressive, …

Skinner’s Behaviorism Theory

Skinner is the most important American psychologist of the twentieth century – and perhaps even the greatest psychologists in the world, except Freud of sure. His first book, The Behavior of Organisms (1938), legitimized a new wave of behaviorism. After its publication, Skinner continues, five decades to develop, refine, correct and refine his original theory. Skinner’s Behaviorism Throughout his life, …

Wittgenstein’s philosophy: Language and Mind-Body Problem

Ludwig Wittgenstein is an austrian philosopher, who studied engineering before going to Cambridge to work under Bertrand Russell‘s tuition. Out of a mass of philosophical writings the Tractatus Logico-philosophicus was the only book to be published in his litetime. Of the posthumous publications the most important are : …

Wittgenstein and Language

Wittgenstein puts the language at the top of his philosophy. According to him, each language has its limits. Wittgenstein’s FIRST PHILOSOPHY (1911-1918) The Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921)  asserts six central thesis. “1. The world is everything that happens. ” “…

The road to serfdom by Hayek (Summary)

Friedrich Hayek is almost always seen as a economist, and too much rarely as a political thinker. Too bad, because the  Road to Serfdom is a great essay of political philosophy, which main themes are freedom and modernity. Background and objective The Road to Serfdom (Hayek) The context of the publication of …

John Rawls – Theory of Justice (Summary)

Cons the classical utilitarianism of Bentham, Rawls offers a new solution to combine social justice and liberalism in the Theory of Justice. Theorist of the contract, this work is considered today in the United States as a classic of political philosophy and often as the greatest book of the contemporary philosophy. …