French

Find out papers and researches on French Philosophers and their philosophical ideas (Voltaire, Sartre, Descartes, …).
Main topics of their thoughts are covered : ethics, metaphysics
Main concepts : freedom, God, tolerance, subjectivity, …

Man is a useless passion (Sartre)

Explanation of this quote This is the conclusion of Sartre in Being and Nothingness: man, as a for-itself which always escapes to him, wants to be in-itself, to give him a nature, in love and lines of bad faith and he wants to coincide with himself, found his being, he wants to be God: a being in-itself-for-itself. Man, that God in power However, this human tendency to want to be his own base, to deny the facticity and the fear of freedom is impossible to satisfy: consciousness will always be a void, ever be full. This is why Jean Paul Sartre launches somewhat provocative: “Man is a useless passion.” Ontologically justified, especially since it is the conclusion of Being and Nothingness, Sartre means the ire of critics who criticize him despair of men to defend an existentialist anti-humanist. Of course, this is wrong: the conference Existentialism is a humanism...

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Montaigne Philosophy Summary

Montaigne Philosophy Summary

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533 – 1592) is a french humanist, philosopher and essayist, influential in reviving and popularizing greek sceptical theories during the Renaissance. His influence is reflectied in the writings of Blaise Pascal, René Descartes, or Nicolas Malebranche, and their several followers. A sceptical philosophy Montaigne’s own sceptical philosophy was set out in his essay Apologie de Raimond Sebon, defending the views of a 15th century spanish rationalist theologian. Supported by examples from Sextus Empiricus, Montaigne argued that rationality is no more than a form of animal behaviour. In summary, despite their alleged superiority, men can often ne shown to be, through vanity, stupidity, and immorality, inferior to animals. We do not succeed in living as happily as they do. Failure of all attempts to achieve knowledge, shown by disagreements through the ages between the experts in every science, leads to the conclusion that the only true...

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Blaise Pascal Philosophy Summary

Blaise Pascal Philosophy Summary

Blaise Pascal: a thought on God, death and passion Blaise Pascal is both a philosopher, a religious thinker and a mathematician. Pascal is considered the forerunner of existentialist philosophy, developed later by Kierkegaard, Heidegger and Sartre. His major work, les Pensées (Thoughts), Pascal speaks about the misery of man without God. On the contrary, God, man may be anchored spiritually. Belief in God is the most reasonable party. What is man according to Pascal? To this question, Pascal brings, first, a psychological response: he places the man in front of him and consider him as made of void and emptiness. This is the famous thesis of the thinking reed. - It is the inconsistency that dominates human nature. - Man is vanity, in the etymological sense of the term (Latin vanitas, vacuum), as this character is hollow and inconsistent. - Vanity is inked in the heart of man: The self is...

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Nicolas Malebranche Philosophy

Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715) is a french philosopher and theologian. He is the principal developer of Cartesianism, i.e. the philosophy of Descartes. 

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Sartre and Consciousness

Cartesian cogito and Sartrean intentionality: In Being and Nothingness, Sartre attempts to rethink the Cartesian cogito. Thus, against Descartes and his “I think therefore I am“, Sartre raises the following thesis: “I am, I exist.” Man is above all about a kind of impersonal existence, an “existence without existing.” According to the existentialist, the acts and states of consciousness do not need any basis to exist: the “I” does not exist, it is a fiction invented by philosophers. Psychic life, spontaneous and thoughtless (= pre-reflective cogito) has its own actions. For example, I do not think “I’m chasing the subway when I rush to catch it” there is really no “I” because I am “aware of the metro to be caught “. Here we see clearly the influence of Husserlian reading of Descartes: “All consciousness is consciousness of something.” Consciousness, Sartre, is the sense of psychic life. Thus, in...

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