French

Find out papers and researches on French Philosophers and their philosophical ideas (Voltaire, Sartre, Descartes, …).
Main topics of their thoughts are covered : ethics, metaphysics
Main concepts : freedom, God, tolerance, subjectivity, …

Denis Diderot: Philosophy Summary

Denis Diderot: Philosophy Summary

Denis Diderot is a french essayist, philosopher and playwright, one the leading figures of the Enlightenment. He studied in Paris where he became acquainted with Rousseau and translated the works of Locke and Shaftesbury. In 1750, he became editor of the Encyclopedie, to which he contributed several articles on aesthetics, ethics, social theory and the philosophy of history. The essay Lettre sur les aveugles (1749) advocated a materialist interpretation of nature and examined the influence of the sensese on the acquisition of ideas. Its atheistic overtones led to Diderot’s imprisonment for five months. His main philosophical works include Le Rêve d’Alembert (1730) and Pensées sur l’interprétation de la nature (1754), in which he emphasizes the complementary roles of observation and reflection in empirical inquiry. Experimental science is possible beacause a single causal principle is neither unitary nor uniform, but composed of essentially different “elements” divisible into molecules. Diderot’s views...

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Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

Robespierre and The conspiracy theory: We will try to show that the french revolutionary terror is indeed based on a conspiracy theory that leads to a theory and a practice of an ideology of transparency, which in turn leads to death of politics. Terror, which began in September 1792 and ended in July 1794 with the arrest and killing of Robespierre, was presented as a law enforcement system to protect and defend democracy from its internal enemies. In the name of “public salvation” they have imprisoned nearly five hundred thousand “traitors of the people” during this period, of which fifty thousand deleted. How the Terror reveals a reversal of democracy against itself ? Protecting democracy from its enemies Terror means the systematic removal of alleged traitors against the Revolution. The “law  of suspects”, voted by the Committee of Public Salvation in September 17, 1793, establishes a reign of suspicion and...

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Rousseau’s Philosophy Summary

Rousseau’s Philosophy Summary

The Philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau Genevan philosopher writing in French, Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote essentially: - Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (1750) - Discourse on the Origin of Inequality among men (1755) - The Social Contract (1762) - Emile – On Education (1762) Rousseau has been subject to multiple interpretations, often contradictory and caricatured and beyond these, critics have beens sometimes simplistic, but the attentive reader discovers in these works an original and coherent thinker, which was fundamentally interested in the real contract, and repressing the world of violence. Rousseau’s key political ideas was the general will rather than the social contract. Political society is seen by Rousseau as involving the total voluntary subjection of every individual to the collective general will; this being both the sole source of legitimate sovereignty and something that cannot but be directed towards the common good. Rousseau and the natural man theory: So...

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Sartre: Hell is other people (Explanation)

Sartre: Hell is other people (Explanation)

No Exit and the question of other people : This quote is one of the most famous Jean-Paul Sartre. Quick explanation of this strange and famous sentence from the existentialist philosopher. It completed the play ‘Huis Clos’, written in 1943. ‘No Exit’ relates the arrival of three characters in hell. Two women and a man trying to understand what might lead them to hell and what is their punishment. They quickly understand that there is no executioner because each of the other two is the hangman for the third. The full version of the quote lights this: “All those glances that I eat … Ha, you’re only two? I thought you were much more numerous. So that’s hell. … I never thought You remember: the sulfur, the stake, the grill .. Oh What a joke. No need to grill: hell is other people” Others, shame and objectification Others in...

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Descartes: I think therefore I am

Descartes: I think therefore I am

I think therefore I am: Descartes’s cogito This quote was taken from the Discourse on Method by René Descartes. Descartes is looking for an unalterable foundation to build the knowledge, a fixed point from which knowledge could be erected . For this, Descartes proposes two methods: -  the doubt - the evil genius Both methods reach the same result: the certainty of the existence of subjectivity : i think therefore i am. 1 / The methodical doubt: the active channel Descartes’s philosophical project is to decide voluntarily to question all their knowledge and opinions. What is he? It was he who doubts. However, to doubt, think. So, if I may, I think, and if I think I am. Doubt, which initially put everything into question, reverses and becomes a source of certainty. 2 / The evil genius: the passive channel Descartes made the assumption that a force is cheating, making him pass for...

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