Philosophers

Find out papers and research on major philosophers of the history, from every continents (Europe, US, Asia, Africa) what are their main key concepts

Bergson Philosophy Summary

Bergson Philosophy Summary

Henri Bergson: a rationalist and Cartesian philosopher Hostile to the materialistic positivism, Henri Bergson, a French vitalist philosopher, has opertated a return to the immediate data of consciousness. Bergson’s intuition: Bergson’s influence was considerable, especially on Sartre or Heidegger. At the end of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, he questioned both the intellectualist philosophies, who claimed access to the real exercise of intelligence and “scientists” solutions, according to which knowledge only provides valid science. However, how could the intelligence grasp reality? - It is in the mold of the action it was cast. - It does not refer originally a purely speculative possibility, but an active power. - Seen in what appears to be the first step, it is to build artificial objects and vary in manufacturing. - Homo Faber before Homo sapiens, the human being has first tried to dominate nature to serve his...

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Philosophy: Free Courses

Online, free and comprehensive philosophy courses The-Philosophy.com provides free resources and philosophy courses for students, as well as tests for philosophy exams. Written by a graduated team from the university of  New York, every article are subject to a careful review by an editorial committee. Our articles are trying to be original and complete by reviewing all the major concepts of philosophy (desire, death, freedom, God, …), on all continents (Europe, U.S., Asia, …) and the major authors of history of philosophy (Aristotle, Kant, Descartes, Sartre, Plato, …)  Contradictory Courses The approach of our current philosophy is contradictory: instead of presenting only one view of an issue, our concern is to present all points of view argued to not fall into the dogmatic trap. Of course, a pure objective course is impossible, but we respect the diversity. A diversified approach Beyond the great writers, we are trying to diversify our way of...

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Contemporary Philosophers

From Classical to contemporary philosophy Students often think that philosophy ends to Descartes. Some teachers and faculty launched the following joke: “A good philosopher is a dead philosopher !” Nope ! contemporary philosophy is more alive than ever: the twentieth century is a great century for philosophy. Many thinkers have challenged the tradition of announcing new thinking, especially phenomenology and analytic philosophy. However, it is clear that the center of gravity has shifted: the great contemporary philosophers are English, or almost all Americans, while at the seventeenth, they were almost all French and German. We propose a list of living philosophers (at the end of 2012): - Amartya Sen: Indian Economist, his major work is Equality of What in which he bases his economic theory on a new conception of subjectivity around the concept of capability. - Peter Sloterdijk: German thinker close to Nietzsche and Heidegger. Sloterdijk is a philosophy of science and...

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Nietzsche Philosophy

Nietzsche Philosophy

Life and Works Friedrich Nietzsche is a german writer and philosopher (1844-1900) born at Rochen, the son of a lutheran pastor. Educated at the famous Schulpforta and at the Universities of Bonn and Leipzig, Nietzsche was an outstandingly brillant student, who at the age of 24 was appointed professor of classics at the University of Basel. Here Nietzsche had the historian Burckhardt as a colleague and Richard and Cosima Wagner, who lived nearby, were among his friends. Recurrent psychosomatic illness forced him to give up his chair in 1879. He spent most of the next ten years at resorts in Italy, France, and Switzerland, writing and trying to recover his health. He became insane in January 1889, after his sister, Elizabeth, looked after him until his death in 1900. The following are the most significant of his numerous philosophical works: The Birth of Tragedy The Wanderer and His Shadow....

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Montaigne Philosophy Summary

Montaigne Philosophy Summary

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533 – 1592) is a french humanist, philosopher and essayist, influential in reviving and popularizing greek sceptical theories during the Renaissance. His influence is reflectied in the writings of Blaise Pascal, René Descartes, or Nicolas Malebranche, and their several followers. A sceptical philosophy Montaigne’s own sceptical philosophy was set out in his essay Apologie de Raimond Sebon, defending the views of a 15th century spanish rationalist theologian. Supported by examples from Sextus Empiricus, Montaigne argued that rationality is no more than a form of animal behaviour. In summary, despite their alleged superiority, men can often ne shown to be, through vanity, stupidity, and immorality, inferior to animals. We do not succeed in living as happily as they do. Failure of all attempts to achieve knowledge, shown by disagreements through the ages between the experts in every science, leads to the conclusion that the only true...

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