Philosophers

Find out papers and research on major philosophers of the history, from every continents (Europe, US, Asia, Africa) what are their main key concepts

Kant and Freedom Definition

In Kant philosophy, Freedom is defined as a concept which is involved in the moral domain, at the question: what should I do? In summary, Kant says that the moral law is only that I know myself as a free person. Kantian freedom is closely linked to the notion of autonomy, which means law itself: thus, freedom falls obedience to a law that I created myself. It is therefore respect its commitment to compliance with oneself. Practical Reason and Freedom Practical reason legislates (makes laws and requirements) of free beings, or more precisely the causality of free beings. Thus, practical reason is based on freedom, it is freedom. Phenomena, in the Kantian thought, are subject to the law of natural causality: each event is the effect of another, and so on to infinity. Unlike the phenomenon of man, in the moral rule is free, ie, it has the power...

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Man is a useless passion (Sartre)

Explanation of this quote This is the conclusion of Sartre in Being and Nothingness: man, as a for-itself which always escapes to him, wants to be in-itself, to give him a nature, in love and lines of bad faith and he wants to coincide with himself, found his being, he wants to be God: a being in-itself-for-itself. Man, that God in power However, this human tendency to want to be his own base, to deny the facticity and the fear of freedom is impossible to satisfy: consciousness will always be a void, ever be full. This is why Jean Paul Sartre launches somewhat provocative: “Man is a useless passion.” Ontologically justified, especially since it is the conclusion of Being and Nothingness, Sartre means the ire of critics who criticize him despair of men to defend an existentialist anti-humanist. Of course, this is wrong: the conference Existentialism is a humanism...

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Bergson Philosophy Summary

Bergson Philosophy Summary

Henri Bergson: a rationalist and Cartesian philosopher Hostile to the materialistic positivism, Henri Bergson, a French vitalist philosopher, has opertated a return to the immediate data of consciousness. Bergson’s intuition: Bergson’s influence was considerable, especially on Sartre or Heidegger. At the end of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, he questioned both the intellectualist philosophies, who claimed access to the real exercise of intelligence and “scientists” solutions, according to which knowledge only provides valid science. However, how could the intelligence grasp reality? – It is in the mold of the action it was cast. – It does not refer originally a purely speculative possibility, but an active power. – Seen in what appears to be the first step, it is to build artificial objects and vary in manufacturing. – Homo Faber before Homo sapiens, the human being has first tried to dominate nature to serve his...

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Philosophy: Free Courses

Online, free and comprehensive philosophy courses The-Philosophy.com provides free resources and philosophy courses for students, as well as tests for philosophy exams. Written by a graduated team from the university of  New York, every article are subject to a careful review by an editorial committee. Our articles are trying to be original and complete by reviewing all the major concepts of philosophy (desire, death, freedom, God, …), on all continents (Europe, U.S., Asia, …) and the major authors of history of philosophy (Aristotle, Kant, Descartes, Sartre, Plato, …)  Contradictory Courses The approach of our current philosophy is contradictory: instead of presenting only one view of an issue, our concern is to present all points of view argued to not fall into the dogmatic trap. Of course, a pure objective course is impossible, but we respect the diversity. A diversified approach Beyond the great writers, we are trying to diversify our way of...

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Contemporary Philosophers

From Classical to contemporary philosophy Students often think that philosophy ends to Descartes. Some teachers and faculty launched the following joke: “A good philosopher is a dead philosopher !” Nope ! contemporary philosophy is more alive than ever: the twentieth century is a great century for philosophy. Many thinkers have challenged the tradition of announcing new thinking, especially phenomenology and analytic philosophy. However, it is clear that the center of gravity has shifted: the great contemporary philosophers are English, or almost all Americans, while at the seventeenth, they were almost all French and German. We propose a list of living philosophers (at the end of 2012): – Amartya Sen: Indian Economist, his major work is Equality of What in which he bases his economic theory on a new conception of subjectivity around the concept of capability. – Peter Sloterdijk: German thinker close to Nietzsche and Heidegger. Sloterdijk is a philosophy of science and...

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