Philosophers

Find out papers and research on major philosophers of the history, from every continents (Europe, US, Asia, Africa) what are their main key concepts

Contemporary Philosophers

From Classical to contemporary philosophy Students often think that philosophy ends to Descartes. Some teachers and faculty launched the following joke: “A good philosopher is a dead philosopher !” Nope ! contemporary philosophy is more alive than ever: the twentieth century is a great century for philosophy. Many thinkers have challenged the tradition of announcing new thinking, especially phenomenology and analytic philosophy. However, it is clear that the center of gravity has shifted: the great contemporary philosophers are English, or almost all Americans, while at the seventeenth, they were almost all French and German. We propose a list of living philosophers (at the end of 2012): - Amartya Sen: Indian Economist, his major work is Equality of What in which he bases his economic theory on a new conception of subjectivity around the concept of capability. - Peter Sloterdijk: German thinker close to Nietzsche and Heidegger. Sloterdijk is a philosophy of science and...

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Nietzsche Philosophy

Nietzsche Philosophy

Life and Works Friedrich Nietzsche is a german writer and philosopher (1844-1900) born at Rochen, the son of a lutheran pastor. Educated at the famous Schulpforta and at the Universities of Bonn and Leipzig, Nietzsche was an outstandingly brillant student, who at the age of 24 was appointed professor of classics at the University of Basel. Here Nietzsche had the historian Burckhardt as a colleague and Richard and Cosima Wagner, who lived nearby, were among his friends. Recurrent psychosomatic illness forced him to give up his chair in 1879. He spent most of the next ten years at resorts in Italy, France, and Switzerland, writing and trying to recover his health. He became insane in January 1889, after his sister, Elizabeth, looked after him until his death in 1900. The following are the most significant of his numerous philosophical works: The Birth of Tragedy The Wanderer and His Shadow....

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Montaigne Philosophy Summary

Montaigne Philosophy Summary

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533 – 1592) is a french humanist, philosopher and essayist, influential in reviving and popularizing greek sceptical theories during the Renaissance. His influence is reflectied in the writings of Blaise Pascal, René Descartes, or Nicolas Malebranche, and their several followers. A sceptical philosophy Montaigne’s own sceptical philosophy was set out in his essay Apologie de Raimond Sebon, defending the views of a 15th century spanish rationalist theologian. Supported by examples from Sextus Empiricus, Montaigne argued that rationality is no more than a form of animal behaviour. In summary, despite their alleged superiority, men can often ne shown to be, through vanity, stupidity, and immorality, inferior to animals. We do not succeed in living as happily as they do. Failure of all attempts to achieve knowledge, shown by disagreements through the ages between the experts in every science, leads to the conclusion that the only true...

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Adam Smith As a moral philosopher

Adam Smith As a moral philosopher

“Vice is always capricious, virtue only is regular and orderly” Adam Smith, well-known as a scottish economist, is also a philosopher through his essay : Theory of Moral Sentiments. An interesting essay in many ways, and whose intellectual level exceeds – by far – that of our postmodern liberals. But in 1759, this thought, because it was not hegemonic, had yet to be rigorous to be intellectually legitimate. And Adam Smith, therefore, was never a counterfeiter intellectual, unlike his contemporary heirs. Summary of the theory of moral sentiments In addition to his nature as God made him (Smith is a believer), the man is a moral being. At least, he must be, by regulating his passions. By a process that is both emotional and intellectual, he has to learn to rationalize his behavior, thinking his moral assessments. Which, for Smith, are therefore within the simple reason, and not in...

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Blaise Pascal Philosophy Summary

Blaise Pascal Philosophy Summary

Blaise Pascal: a thought on God, death and passion Blaise Pascal is both a philosopher, a religious thinker and a mathematician. Pascal is considered the forerunner of existentialist philosophy, developed later by Kierkegaard, Heidegger and Sartre. His major work, les Pensées (Thoughts), Pascal speaks about the misery of man without God. On the contrary, God, man may be anchored spiritually. Belief in God is the most reasonable party. What is man according to Pascal? To this question, Pascal brings, first, a psychological response: he places the man in front of him and consider him as made of void and emptiness. This is the famous thesis of the thinking reed. - It is the inconsistency that dominates human nature. - Man is vanity, in the etymological sense of the term (Latin vanitas, vacuum), as this character is hollow and inconsistent. - Vanity is inked in the heart of man: The self is...

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