The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas (Summary)

Saint Thomas D'Aquin

The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas : between God and Ethics

St. Thomas Aquinas, an Italian philosopher, has produced a major work, the Summa Theologica, an attempt to  synthetize Aristotle’s philosophy and writings of Revelation.

Thomas Aquinas strives to give faith to the reason: the first brings the truths inaccessible to reason.

Thomas Aquinas and metaphysics :

The Christian philosopher attempts to unify the Christian themes and concepts of Aristotelianism. He distinguishes the subject, that is to say, the various powers and potentialities, not yet updated, and form, which, in the subject matter organizes and gives it its true essence and existence: c ‘ is due to the shape of the material that everything is routed to its own existence. However, Aquinas goes beyond the purely Aristotelian and it posits the existence, under which an act is reality. In God’s existence and essence coincide (“I am who I am,” declares the LORD in the Bible) on the contrary, essence and existence are different in the various individual substances, including humans.

Thomas Aquinas and morality:

His morality is also very close to that of Aristotle’s thoughts on justice, which leads him to distinguish between distributive justice (that which divides the honors, riches, according to the qualities of each) and commutative justice (the rule that economic exchanges under the equal proportion principle).

At the top of Thomistic Ethics ranks of the Sage: it means the person whose attention is tounée to the supreme cause of the universe, namely God. And the wisdom she represents the knowledge of divine realities. The ultimate happiness of man consists in contemplating the divine truth: the contemplation of truth is our ultimate goal and raises us to God.

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This adaptation of the Aristotelian doctrine in Christian thought, hardly accepted by the Church, go play, gradually, a fundamental role in Catholicism. From the 16th century, Thomism is adopted as official doctrine of the Church.

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