sigmund freud

Unconscious and philosophers (Freud, Lacan, Leibniz)

The Classical thought did not recognize the existence of the unconscious. Descartes, in fact, identified consciousness and psyche. The merit of the German philosopher Leibniz will address the problem of the unconscious.

The notion of unconscious was developed by Von Hartmann in Die Philosophie des Unbewussten, synthetising the theories of Schelling, Schopenhauer and Hegel. Hartmann explains the misery of existence by the suffering of the unconscious from the constant strife between will and reason. It can be alleviated only by conscious reason gaining ascendancy over blind impulse, until the final liberation of the unconscious at the end of physical life.

In modern times, Freud will show the full legitimacy of this concept, now defined on the basis of repression.

At first regarded as an adjective, the unconscious means an individual who has no conscience, but also anything that is beyond consciousness.

Definitions of Philosophers:


– “We reserve the name of the unconscious repressed psychic facts, that is to say, dynamically unconscious. ”

– “The unconscious is the psychic itself and its essential reality. Its intimate nature as unknown to us that the reality of the outside world, and consciousness tells us about him in a way as incomplete as our sense organs on the outside world. ”


– “The unconscious is that part of concrete discourse as transindividual, which is lacking in the subject’s disposal to restore the continuity of his conscious discourse.


– “In our common life, we are aware, but we are not aware of being aware, many things, even if that equipment, we are unconscious, such vital operations necessary for our preservation, who are we without our awareness of their specific operation, such that science is only able to let us know. In terms of spirit, he is also a lot of us that we ignore reality. ”


“There are many brands that are there to judge at any time an infinity of perceptions within us, but without apperception and without reflection, that is to say changes in the soul itself, which we do not perceive”

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