Dostoevsky, God and Ethics
Nothing is more seductive for man than his freedom of conscience. But nothing is a greater cause of suffering, Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov, 1880.
Dostoevsky and morality:
In Dostoevsky, the problem of God is not the problem of recognition of the truth, but the elimination of the doubt. The main source of doubt in Dostoievsky is the obvious paradox of suffering in the world and the concept of a loving God.
Dostoyevsky expressed this conflict in Ivan Karamazov, “It’s not God that I do not agree, I do not accept the world that He created.” The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoevsky’s novel in which most explicitly addresses the question of God, was planned in a way that “between faith against atheism.” Faith is mainly represented in the characters magnets: Alyosha and Zosima , through which Dostoevsky saw “a pure ideal Christianity.”
“God and the devil are fighting there and the battlefield is the heart of men”
For Alyosha, we must defend his convictions with the example of Christ who suffered an excruciating crucifixion motivated by love of men. Extrapolating the idea, Alyosha explains that “everyone is responsible for all”. All the guilt, and therefore all suffering should be common to all believers, as we are all guilty of Adam and Eve through the original sin.
Dostoyevsky, my freedom was less the beginning, the freedom to choose the Good, which supports the possibility of sin, the greater freedom was the end, freedom in God, in the bosom of God … The dignity of the rights and dignity of faith require the recognition of two freedoms, the freedom to choose the truth and freedom in the truth … But free goodness, which alone is true, includes freedom from evil.
But if evil requires freedom is by humans that evil and suffering are produced, and therefore God can not be blamed. You can not have a world that is both free and good human imperfection will not allow.
Dostoevsky and Superman:
In a letter to N.L. Ozmidov in 1878, Dostoevsky wrote:
“Now suppose that there is no God or immortality of the soul. Now tell me, why should I live righteously and do good deeds, if I die entirely on earth? … And if so, why should I not (as I can count on my intelligence and agility to avoid being caught by the law) cut the throat of another man, stealing, … ”
This theory of the superman, originally created in Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment, is the result of a doubt expressed in the existence of God. The theory allows Raskolnikov, without prompting, to murder two women and potentially an unborn child. As a superior being, he should be allowed to take the lives of those who are less significant and essential. Similarly, Kirillov said: “If God exists, then everything is His will, and I can not do anything with my own outside of His will. If there is no God, then everything is my will and I must express my will. ” This amazing arrogance comes from the absolute lack of faith in Christ, he has faith in himself, “If you’re doing, you will become God, is not it? “” Yes, I will become God. ”
However, this theory is refuted by Dostoyevsky in his development of the plot. Raskolnikov is unable to live with himself after the assassination of the usurer. It is fundamentally unable to clear his sense of right and wrong, to silence his conscience. Initially, he tries to continue living, enjoying his cunning, concluding that it is a superman. Yet the humble Sonya reminds him of his act, reminds him of his guilt and therefore needs forgiveness. Dostoevsky destroyed the theory of the Superman condemning the characters involved in the mental suffering until they recognize the truth and the light of Christianity.