Karl Marx and Ideology
Ideology is a central concept in Marx. Indeed, it is derived from the notion of “superstructure “. Marx distinguishes two levels of reality to the conscience of the individual: the infrastructure, which means the real world, that of matter, means of production and the superstructure, which returns to the world of ideas, the world of illusions dominated by the ideas of the ruling class, the capitalists.
According to Marx, bourgeois society and ideology as it is based on the ideas of the bourgeois class. The world through a consciousness living in such a society is a fantasy world, unreal, far from real life. Marx, these are the ideas that guide the bourgeois world and oppress the working class.
Ideology thus means domination of one class over another:
“The thoughts of the dominant class are in every epoch the dominant ideas, ie the class which is the dominant material power of society is also the dominant spiritual power. The dominant thoughts are not anything other than the ideal expression of the dominant material relations, material relations are the dominant form of ideas before, so the reports that are words from one class the ruling class, ie what are the ideas of its dominance”
Communism aims at restoring the balance between consciousness and reality. Communism reinserted consciousness in real life, according to Marx.