The Ethics of Friedrich Nietzsche
After the article on the death of God in Nietzsche and his invitation to become what we are, let’s have a look today on the morality defended by this German philosopher.
In Thus Spoke Zarathustra, the main character announces as a prophecy a complete reversal of values. His purpose is to destroy all illusions that may persist after the announcement of the death of God. Indeed, the ancient culture and morality are based on the idea of God. If God is dead, he must reinvent the morality in rejecting the dualistic metaphysics, which posits the existence of two worlds, a world of sense (man’s world) and a supra-sensible world (that of God and souls).
Nietzsche rejects and destroys only to build: his movement is creative. The new morality, which must accompany the Superman in his conquests, is the WILL TO POWER. The new morality must make great things possible, restore the man’s potential to create. Some, as Nietzsche calls the “last men”, believe that the absence of God leads to nihilism and immorality, purely and simply. The death of God is in fact ambivalent: it carries a great hope, that of a new world, but also a risk, that of seeing the last men impose chaos.
Nietzsche‘s morality is not based on :
– Materialism of Epicurus
– Idealism of Plato
– Stoicism of the Greek sages
– Or on any of the classical doctrines that precedes him.
Superman must despise the reactive morality , despise happiness, despise reason, despise virtue, despise justice, despise compassion.
Nietzsche‘s morality is based on the figure of Dionysus, the god of drunkenness, of dance, of spontaneity, of art, of play, of childhood, of body recovery and of creation.
More than a list of values, Nietzsche gives the necessary qualities to Superman, including immanence. Indeed, morality is derived more than one beyond, but the man himself.
What looks like such a morality? At a Gay Science, knowledge driven by a affirmative and creative desire, who wants to know reality as it is, with its share of chance, evil, unpredictable, absurd. And this world, from this knowledge, can then be converted:
“I love those who are not forced to look beyond the stars a reason to decline […] but instead sacrifice themselves to the earth”
“Like one who STRIVE”