Being for-itself / in-itself

The terms in-itself and for-itself were created by Sartre in Being and Nothingness. They together form the ontology of Sartre’s theory of reality in Being and Nothingness. The in-itself is the world of physical things (a paper cutter, an…

Plato’s Theory of Knowledge

The theory of reminiscence is expressed by Plato in the Meno, book on virtue. For Plato, knowledge is to remember, remember. Search and learning are one and the same act. This theory is based on the assumption of the…

Herd Behavior

The herd instinct is defined as the obedience of the individual to the mass, blindly and without reflection. Nietzsche sharply criticized the herd instinct in the modern civilization : “Morality is the herd instinct” (The Gay Science)…

Locke Books

John Locke published few books, compared to many of the greatest philosophers, like Kant or Sartre.But the influence of Locke’s works is important. Here…

Nietzsche Books

Nietzsche wrote a lot of books. Here are the top of the list : – The Birth of Tragedy – Truth and Lies in…

Noble Savage – Rousseau

Rousseau is often credited with the authorship of this myth, which was developed in his Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men and…

Is Socrates a Sophist?

No. Socrates spent his life fighting against the sophists (Gorgias, Protagoras in particular). Socrates criticizes sophists including use of demagogy, while he does not reason byargument. The Sophists seek only defeat in the verbal jousting, Socrates only seeks the truth.

Idealism and empiricism

What is the difference between idealism and empiricism in philosophy? Idealism (Kant, Descartes, Plato, …) thinks that knowledge comes from the subject. Empiricism (Hume) asserts that the truth comes from experience. Transcendental idealism (Kant, Husserl) is a…

Is philosophy a luxury?

Yes and no. Yes, because philosophizing on an empty stomach is not easy, it seems the prerogative of the people at home (hence the reputation of snobbery philosophers). No, because philosophy is to question the world. Now, what can be without it? Socrates also said: The…

Is Descartes a skeptic?

Yes and no. Yes, because Descartes doubts (Discorse on Method / Medidations) No, because Descartes’ doubt is provisional and voluntary (methodological doubt). The skeptical doubt is permanent.

Is Humanism a philosophical school ?

Yes. Humanism was born during the Renaissance (Montaigne, Erasmus, Rabelais, orhave are the illustrious fathers). This philosophical movement continues until the 20th century (think of Sartre and the title of his famous lecture: Existentialism is a Humanism)

Kant’s Books

Kant has not the biggest work of the history, but certainly one of the most influential thought. 1781. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. 2nd ed.,…

When was philosophy born?

The birth of philosophy, in its oral tradition, did not leave a trace enough to be dated. For the written tradition, the philosophy goes back to Homer, the first book of humanity.

What is the Copernican revolution in Kant?

The Copernican revolution is an analogy used by Kant. Copernicus discovered that the earth revolves around the sun, while the opposite was thought before him. Similarly, in The Critique of Pure Reason, Kant reverses the traditional relationsubject / object: it…

Was Socrates gay?

Yes, this is not a myth. In many dialogues of Plato, Socrates is presented as a homosexual, attractedparticularly by young youths (including Alcibiades). According to Socrates, only thesex between men can achieve the idea of ​​beautiful bodies, the male /…