Philosophers

Find out papers and research on major philosophers of the history, from every continents (Europe, US, Asia, Africa) what are their main key concepts

Adam Smith As a moral philosopher

Adam Smith As a moral philosopher

“Vice is always capricious, virtue only is regular and orderly” Adam Smith, well-known as a scottish economist, is also a philosopher through his essay…

Blaise Pascal Philosophy Summary

Blaise Pascal Philosophy Summary

Blaise Pascal: a thought on God, death and passion Blaise Pascal is both a philosopher, a religious thinker and a mathematician. Pascal is considered…

Phenomenology of Spirit by Hegel (Summary)

Phenomenology of Spirit by Hegel (Summary)

The Phenomenology of Spirit, or the adventure of consciousness The Phenomenology of Spirit by Hegel, published in 1807, is based on a precious philosophical intuition:…

Nicolas Malebranche Philosophy

Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715) is a french philosopher and theologian. He is the principal developer of Cartesianism, i.e. the philosophy of Descartes. 

Hilary Putnam Philosophy Summary

Hilary Putnam Philosophy Summary

Hilary Putnam is one of the most important contemporary philosopher, who works in the analytic philosophy branch. Metaphysics and ontology During his career, Putnam…

Friedrich Engels Philosophy

Friedrich Engels Philosophy

Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) is the lifelong friend and collaborator of Karl Marx. He wrote many works on politics and history. Unlike Marx, he also…

Sartre and Consciousness

Cartesian cogito and Sartrean intentionality: In Being and Nothingness, Sartre attempts to rethink the Cartesian cogito. Thus, against Descartes and his “I think therefore…

Edmund Burke Philosophy Summary

Edmund Burke Philosophy Summary

Edmund Burke (1729-1797) is a statesman, british philosopher. Synthesis of Burke Philosophy Burke’s major contribution to philosophy was on aesthetics philosophy : “Philosophical Inquiry…

Francis Bacon Philosophy Summary

Francis Bacon Philosophy Summary

Life and Works Francis Bacon (1561-1626) is a london-born philosopher who was the the forerunner of the british empiricism tradition, streching through Locke, Hume,…

John Locke Works

John Locke Works

John Locke (1632-1704) is probably the greatest and certainly the most influential, english philosopher, whose became the foundation both for classical british empiricism and…

Kant and the Sublime

The sublime is at the heart of Kant’s aesthetic philosophy. Kant defines sublime as that is beyond all comparison (that is absolutely) great, either…

Stream of Consciousness in James

The stream of consciousness is a phrase coined by the psychologist William James as a characterization of the mind, that is,  that it is…

Denis Diderot: Philosophy Summary

Denis Diderot: Philosophy Summary

Denis Diderot is a french essayist, philosopher and playwright, one the leading figures of the Enlightenment. He studied in Paris where he became acquainted…

Sigmund Freud’s Theories

Sigmund Freud’s Theories

Sigmund Freud, an Austrian psychiatrist and thinker, has developed many theories on the human subjectivity and founded the psychoanalysis method. Freud explored the unconscious,…

Spy, Democracy and Politics

Does secrets ruined democracy? The question of intelligence Each election, each political issue always refers to the place of secrecy in the public sphere,…

Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

Robespierre and The conspiracy theory: We will try to show that the french revolutionary terror is indeed based on a conspiracy theory that leads…

Introduction to Phenomenology

Introduction to Phenomenology

Phenomenology : a science of phenomenon Phenomenology is, in general, descriptive study of a set of phenomena. It often refers to Husserl’s philosophical system…