Stoïcism has been one of the powerful philosophy schools at Antiquity.
Stoicism: From the Old Stoicism to Imperial Stoicism
There are several periods in Stoicism:
– Old Stoicism: founded by Zeno of Citium. This Greek philosopher taught under the portico, where the name of the school of the Porch. We have only fragments of this thinker.
– Roman Stoicism, Imperial said: Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius made it famous philosophical.
In the Stoicism, happiness means the independence from external circumstances and the detachment from things. Control of our representations and the exercise of judgments can be accessed.
The logic in the Stoic Philosophy
Logic studies the conditions of access to knowledge. However, the sensitive is the model of truth. When the soul is essentially receptive, we talk about representation, defined as an imprint in the soul. To arrive at science, that is to say a firm understanding and assured, the mind must actively intervene and clear the truth, thanks in particular to prolepses or preconceptions, that contains the core principles from the origin and that external objects arouse. The set of preconceptions is the reason.
The Physics in the Stoic Philosophy
The center of the Stoic doctrine is the physical study of Nature or God. Stoicism may indeed be considered a Pantheism: God is the World. Le Monde, penetrated by reason, principle of things, is the bearer of unity and understanding. It’s a perfect body that governs the fate, eternal motion, continuous and regulated. Destiny is among the Stoics, a spiritual power which administers the universe. Providence, defined as fate and organization of the world as they are endowed with finality, thus takes an important place in Stoic physics.
However, Stoicism does not believe in fatalism, because it remains an essential part of human freedom.
The moral in the Stoic Philosophy
Stoic morality is a morality of freedom. Despite the fate, the man remains free of its representations and opinions. We can, despite the lack of control causes, have control of our representations. Freedom for them means the power to act for yourself at the thought and decision. That depends on us, what are our opinions and desires. This does not depend on us, the body, reputation, honor, property.
Control representations leads to ataraxia, ie the serenity of the soul, the absence of disorder, apathy, state of the soul that perceives even more pain. The man reached and the highest good, happiness conceived as existence in accordance with nature or God, as life in accordance with reason. The passions are the main danger in the life of Sage, but he managed to dominate the dominant representations.
Stoicism and wisdom
“Everything is opinion. And the opinion depends on you” That invitation of Marcus Aurelius epitomizes the Stoic thought. In this brief formula, the Stoic wisdom fully illustrates his ideal, which has on the whole philosophy (Spinoza, Descartres, …) a major influence.